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The economy

Operating as a single market with 28 countries, the EU is a major world trading power.


EU economic policy seeks to sustain growth by investing in transport, energy and research – while minimising the impact of further economic development on the environment.

Measuring the EU’s economy

The EU's economy — measured in terms of the goods and services it produces (GDP) — is now bigger than the US's: EU GDP in 2012: €12 945 402 million

Trade

With just 7% of the world’s population, the EU's trade with the rest of the world accounts for around 20% of global exports and imports.

Around two-thirds of EU countries’ total trade is done with other EU countries.

Trade has been hit by the global recession, but the EU remains the world’s largest player accounting for 16.4% of global imports in 2011. The EU is followed by the United States with 15.5% of all imports, and China with 11.9%. The EU was also the biggest exporter, accounting for 15.4% of all exports – compared with 13.4% for China and the 10.5% for the United States.

Employment

Employment has also been hit by the global economic crisis, and the turbulence in the eurozone.

Workforce employed in agriculture

CountryFamily labour forceRegular non family labour forceNon-family labour force working on non-regular basis
Austria91.36%7.75%0.88%
Belgium78.18%16.97%4.84%
Bulgaria90.10%7.59%2.30%
Croatia96.24%2.76%1.00%
Cyprus92.62%5.14%2.24%
Czech Republic31.57%65.94%2.49%
Denmark69.65%28.46%1.89%
Estonia74.5%24.42%1.08%
Finland85.77%10.89%3.34%
France51.58%40.51%7.91%
Germany71.67%21.4%6.93%
Greece93.46%2.06%4.47%
Hungary90.45%7.79%1.76%
Iceland66.33%28.55%5.12%
Ireland92.93%5.97%1.10%
Italy92.16%4.66%3.18%
Latvia90.11%9.61%0.28%
Lithuania91.63%7.57%0.80%
Luxembourg79.88%17.19%2.93%
Malta95.09%4.69%0.22%
Netherlands63.78%27.47%8.74%
Poland97.01%2.26%0.73%
Portugal89.42%6.83%3.75%
Romania97.04%1.45%1.50%
Slovakia49.60%48.35%2.05%
Slovenia96.08%1.52%2.40%
Spain81.49%11.49%7.02%
Sweden82.75%14.99%2.26%
United Kingdom72.82%22.70%4.48%
Source: Eurostat


The data is not available for EU countries that do not appear
in the drop-down menu.

Percentage of people employed in industry (excluding construction) compared to 2010 (2010 = 100)

YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.90100.28100.38100.30
2012100.0799.8799.5999.04
EU27
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.29100.66100.72100.50
2012100.38100.2499.9199.40
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.32100.69100.76100.54
2012100.42100.2999.9699.47
Belgium
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011::::
2012::::
Bulgaria
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.6499.8499.2797.19
201296.9997.2896.5995.38
Czech Republic
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.46102.23102.36101.84
2012101.68101.66101.55101.51
Denmark
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.4799.5099.5299.46
201299.3498.9598.5497.77
Germany
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.39102.31103.14103.81
2012104.44104.84105.12105.16
Estonia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.57102.47103.27103.80
2012104.20104.99105.57106.55
Ireland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201198.6698.0997.60102.59
201297.4295.9094.9297.66
Greece
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201194.8294.2692.5591.33
201288.8587.4086.9982.76
Spain
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201197.7198.5097.3295.67
201293.7692.6592.1090.08
France
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.1999.0898.9198.70
201298.4898.3098.0697.68
Croatia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201198.0997.5697.2796.73
201295.8595.0093.9692.46
Italy
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011::::
2012::::
Cyprus
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201198.0897.1695.9093.43
201293.4091.3489.6787.19
Latvia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011104.73106.97107.26107.54
2012109.78111.06112.50113.31
Lithuania
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011102.39103.91105.27105.39
2012102.35102.49103.10103.94
Luxembourg
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.1599.7499.7999.14
201297.9997.8997.2096.49
Hungary
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011102.47103.87103.81103.38
2012101.26101.56101.19101.05
Malta
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.04100.4299.8699.49
201299.2199.0899.3398.50
Netherlands
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.4699.4099.3099.08
201298.5498.2997.8997.60
Austria
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.41101.96102.68103.10
2012103.57103.84104.01103.91
Poland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011102.05102.32101.92101.78
2012101.52101.29101.07100.77
Portugal
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.3099.3199.0698.11
201296.7595.9295.1094.20
Romania
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.49100.72101.87102.08
2012102.47103.43103.84104.34
Slovenia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201197.7297.8997.8397.46
201297.7297.3996.7397.26
Slovakia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011104.05104.51104.27104.68
2012104.36104.13103.61102.07
Finland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201197.9297.34100.0498.77
201298.9698.8197.5897.47
Sweden
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011102.27102.57103.10101.97
2012101.21100.73100.31100.07
United Kingdom
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.49100.3899.9999.30
2012100.88100.6999.4598.52

The data is not available for EU countries that do not appear
in the drop-down menu.

Source: Eurostat


The data is not available for EU countries that do not appear
in the drop-down menu.

Employment in services compared to 2010 (2010 = 100)

EU28
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.68101.14101.38101.45
2012101.60101.64101.57101.45
Bulgaria
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.56100.1799.2598.40
201297.0796.6995.6494.61
Belgium
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011NaNNaNNaNNaN
2012NaNNaNNaNNaN
Czech Republic
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.26102.03101.89101.26
2012101.21101.75101.49101.23
Denmark
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.38100.83101.28101.41
2012101.50101.62101.51101.71
Germany
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.92102.83103.63104.27
2012104.98105.10105.42105.91
Estonia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.84102.89104.61106.44
2012107.55108.80109.21110.15
Ireland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201197.8399.5597.6998.06
2012103.79100.12102.72102.35
Greece
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201196.2090.7889.7887.65
201283.2485.5782.3779.19
Spain
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.6899.5998.8398.13
201297.2195.9795.1694.65
France
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.20101.69101.75101.78
2012101.70101.51101.28100.92
Italy
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011NaNNaNNaNNaN
2012NaNNaNNaNNaN
Cyprus
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.31101.40101.34101.54
2012100.52100.4699.6498.54
Latvia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011102.57108.03107.44109.21
2012113.43114.62118.81120.02
Lithuania
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011103.42104.98106.79107.51
2012105.81106.46107.29108.22
Luxembourg
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011102.00103.30103.98104.63
2012105.69105.97106.12107.06
Hungary
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.03100.90101.60102.29
201298.0897.1498.1997.82
Malta
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.2999.77101.0399.34
201297.7398.8099.8299.93
Netherlands
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.86101.30101.49101.58
2012101.48101.39101.06100.72
Austria
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.66102.76102.93103.48
2012104.44104.26104.04103.74
Poland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011103.00104.87104.93105.20
2012104.77104.76105.08105.20
Portugal
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.7299.0597.8395.76
201293.6492.1790.9589.75
Romania
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201194.7996.2598.1799.88
2012102.53104.82106.22108.67
Slovenia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.4899.7499.2898.54
201299.1398.1397.5098.19
Slovakia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.67101.91102.61103.14
2012102.44104.47105.38105.59
Finland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.92102.66100.81100.29
2012101.68103.07102.97102.58
Sweden
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011103.39105.01106.40106.64
2012107.07107.79107.15108.70
United Kingdom
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.33100.45101.00101.53
2012103.34103.77104.00103.80
Croatia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.62100.28100.42100.09
201299.3999.6299.7499.10

The data is not available for EU countries that do not appear
in the drop-down menu.

Source: Eurostat


Unemployment rate

CountryWomenMen
Austria50.46% 49.54%
Belgium48.51% 51.49%
Bulgaria46.78% 53.22%
Croatia46.75% 53.25%
Cyprus47.60% 52.40%
Czech Republic58.40% 41.60%
Denmark52.05% 47.95%
Estonia48.12% 51.88%
Finland46.18% 53.82%
France50.13% 49.87%
Germany46.90% 53.10%
Greece56.29% 43.71%
Hungary50.30% 49.70%
Ireland42.00% 58.00%
Italy53.17% 46.83%
Latvia47.45% 52.55%
Lithuania44.85% 55.15%
Luxembourg55.51% 44.49%
Malta49.41% 50.59%
Netherlands46.97% 53.03%
Poland53.39% 46.61%
Portugal50.64% 49.36%
Romania45.51% 54.49%
Slovakia50.80% 49.20%
Slovenia54.99% 45.01%
Spain51.26% 48.74%
Sweden48.99% 51.01%
United Kingdom46.90% 53.10%
Source: Eurostat

Research

Research and development (R&D) lies at the heart of the EU’s strategy to make its economy more competitive. The aim is to invest more to bring its R&D spending in line with that of the United States and Japan.

No data available for some countries and/or sectors

Total spending on R&D as a percentage of GDP

CountryBusiness enterprise sectorGovernment sectorHigher education sectorPrivate non-profit sector
Austria1.90.140.710.01
Belgium1.520.180.490.02
Bulgaria0.30.20.060
Croatia0.340.210.210
Cyprus0.070.080.270.08
Czech Republic0.910.320.40.01
Denmark1.960.060.940.01
Estonia1.50.190.660.02
Finland2.680.340.760.03
France1.440.310.470.03
Germany1.960.420.52:
Greece0.230.160.270.01
Hungary0.760.190.25:
Ireland1.140.080.43:
Italy0.690.170.360.04
Latvia0.190.160.34:
Lithuania0.240.180.5:
Luxembourg1:::
Malta0.480.030.210
Netherlands1.140.220.67:
Poland0.230.260.270
Portugal0.710.110.570.12
Romania0.180.20.110
Slovakia0.250.190.240
Slovenia1.830.350.290
Spain0.710.260.380
Sweden2.330.150.90.01
United Kingdom1.130.150.460.03

No data available for some countries and/or sectors

Source: Eurostat

Transport

The EU aims is to promote efficient, safe, secure and environmentally friendly transport networks.

The proportion of journeys made by car has increased slightly since 2008 – compared with other forms of road transport (such as coaches and buses). The EU continues to support investment in and restructuring of rail transport.

In spite of the current economic crisis, global air transport looks set to expand by around 5% a year until 2030. As traffic increases, so do concerns about safety. EU aviation policy aims to make European air space the safest in the world.

Passenger transport by road, rail and air


Passenger transport by road, rail and air

Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
2000:::
2001:::
2002:::
2003:::
2004:::
2005:::
2006:::
2007:::
2008:::
2009:::
2010:::
2011:::

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
EU28
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.1839.9
20017.183.29.7
20026.883.69.5
20036.783.89.5
20046.883.79.5
20056.883.69.5
20067849.1
2007783.99.1
20087.283.69.2
20097.184.18.8
20107.284.18.8
20117.184.18.8

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006:
2007792700448
2008798330585
2009751060420
2010776851750
2011821265790
Belgium
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20006.183.410.5
20016.28310.7
20026.382.311.4
20036.381.212.5
20046.880.512.7
20056.380.713
20066.680.213.2
20076.779.913.4
20087.379.613.2
20097.379.413.3
20107.479.213.3
20117.379.513.2

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200619154636
200720805314
200821981645
200921314463
201022690502
201125098923
Bulgaria
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.759.832.4
20016.560.832.6
20025.359.934.7
20035.364.530.2
20045.169.825
20054.870.924.3
20064.772.622.7
20074.473.821.8
2008475.120.8
20093.779.516.8
20103.68016.4
20113.580.615.9

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006:
20076071210
20086417873
20095838685
20106168346
20116651562
Czech Republic
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20008.373.118.6
20018.371.819.9
20027.573.818.7
20037.375.517.2
20047.576.616
20057.375.517.2
20067.575.217.3
20077.375.717
20087.17616.9
20096.876.216.9
20107.572.619.9
20117.674.418

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200612171235
200713098141
200813429149
200912367467
201012242386
201112650532
Denmark
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.580.112.4
20017.879.912.3
20027.780.312
20038.381.410.3
20048.281.610.2
20058.381.510.2
20068.1829.9
20078.3829.7
20088.482.29.4
20098.382.39.4
20108.781.89.5
2011981.69.4

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200622965651
200724041619
200824629204
200922272961
201024330644
201125804863
Germany
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.785.27.1
20017.685.56.9
20027.186.26.7
20037.286.16.8
20047.585.86.7
20057.585.86.7
20067.885.66.6
20077.885.76.5
20088.185.66.3
20097.9866.1
20108866
20118.1865.8

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006154145981
2007163843996
2008166095390
2009158150131
2010166130833
2011175316076
Estonia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20002.769.827.5
20011.970.128
20021.871.726.5
20031.773.624.7
20041.872.925.3
20051.777.820.4
200627819.9
20072.279.418.4
20082.181.416.5
2009283.115
2010283.614.4
2011284.114

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20061533132
20071722505
20081804430
20091341294
20101381062
20111907569
Ireland
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
2000383.713.3
20013.283.713.2
20023.483.513.2
20033.283.613.2
20043.183.813
20053.483.612.9
20063.583.712.8
20073.583.612.9
20083.483.812.8
20092.984.612.5
20103.184.312.6
2011384.212.8

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200627558133
200729840020
200830018287
200926268887
201023093749
201123362889
Greece
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20002.272.825.1
20011.974.323.8
20021.975.123
20031.676.422.1
20041.677.520.9
20051.778.320
20061.679.219.2
20071.679.918.5
20081.380.817.9
20091.281.916.9
20101.181.617.3
20110.881.617.6

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200632762340
200734785958
200834404278
200932882441
201032131780
201133291435
Spain
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.48113.5
20015.580.813.7
20025.282.512.3
20035.183.111.8
2004581.713.2
20055.18212.9
20065.282.812
200758114
20085.580.314.3
20095.481.413.3
20105.482.312.3
20115.58113.5

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006150599286
2007163523010
2008161400952
2009148318298
2010153387014
2011165153230
France
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20008.686.15.3
20018.586.64.9
20028.786.45
20038.486.65
20048.786.25.1
20059.185.85.2
20069.485.35.3
20079.684.95.5
200810.184.25.7
200910.3845.7
201010.284.15.8
201110.383.85.9

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006113182776
2007120034361
2008122723531
2009117561564
2010122887263
2011131425313
Croatia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.181.413.6
20014.881.713.5
20024.582.213.3
20034.282.213.6
20044.283.812.1
20054.383.811.9
20064.483.711.8
2007582.912.1
20085.482.212.5
20095.683.610.7
20105.683.710.7
20114.984.610.5

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006:
2007:
20084504278
20094334987
20104677030
20114989047
Italy
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.783.510.8
20015.883.111.1
20025.782.911.3
20035.782.911.5
20045.782.811.5
200568212
20065.682.911.5
20075.483.411.1
20085.682.911.5
20095.682.511.9
20105.682.412
20115.182.812.1

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200695914356
2007106294205
2008105216903
2009101823760
2010109064953
2011116226667
Cyprus
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
2000:77.722.3
2001:77.522.5
2002:77.422.6
2003:76.423.6
2004:78.821.2
2005:79.220.8
2006:79.620.4
2007:80.319.7
2008:81.218.8
2009:82.417.6
2010:81.918.1
2011:81.718.3

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20066713880
20077004127
20087218073
20096729554
20106947632
20117190265
Latvia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20004.876.918.4
20014.879.915.3
20024.876.618.6
20034.875.719.4
20045.273.821.1
20055.473.521.1
20065.476.618
20074.979.415.7
20085.278.716.1
20094.881.313.9
20104.879.915.3
20115.178.416.5

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20062488065
20073155771
20083687329
20094062704
20104655898
20115098360
Lithuania
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20003.282.214.6
20012.882.614.6
20022.58215.4
20031.98513.1
20041.586.611.9
20051.189.49.5
20061918
20070.990.78.4
2008190.98.2
20090.9927.1
20100.791.77.6
20110.890.88.3

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20061799195
20072195959
20082552074
20091867191
20102282834
20112691991
Luxembourg
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.593.41
20015.693.41
20023.985.710.5
20033.785.710.6
20043.685.610.8
20053.685.510.9
20063.985.310.8
20074.184.911.1
20084.384.211.4
20094.384.311.4
20104.583.811.7
20114.483.112.5

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20061597404
20071634465
20081713003
20091535261
20101613600
20111836761
Hungary
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
200012.962.125
200113.461.724.9
200213.961.324.7
200313.661.425
20041462.523.5
200513.162.724.2
200612.963.423.7
200713.161.925
200811.859.828.4
200912.363.124.6
201011.863.125.1
201111.763.424.9

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20068245920
20078580261
20088429082
20098081067
20108174510
20118884837
Malta
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
2000:79.620.4
2001:79.320.7
2002:79.420.6
2003:79.520.5
2004:79.620.4
2005:80.319.7
2006:80.419.6
2007:80.619.4
2008:80.819.2
2009:81.918.1
2010:81.518.5
2011:81.718.3

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20062699870
20072971368
20083109899
20092918676
20103293548
20113506723
Netherlands
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20009.4864.6
20019.4864.6
20029.386.44.3
20038.787.43.9
20048.987.23.9
20058.387.83.8
20069.587.13.5
20079.287.43.4
20089.287.33.5
20099.187.33.6
20109.187.23.7
20118.788.13.3

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200648582547
200750500592
200850418517
200946479064
201048616387
201153895216
Austria
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20009.879.211
20019.779.410.9
20029.779.410.9
20039.579.510.9
20049.579.611
20059.879.710.5
20061079.610.4
200710.179.210.8
200811.178.610.2
200911.179.39.6
20101178.710.3
20111178.910.1

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200620824533
200722926104
200823899584
200921817267
201023532455
201125137612
Poland
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
200011.772.815.4
200110.674.714.7
20029.57713.5
20038.877.613.5
2004878.913.1
20057.380.712
20066.982.510.6
20076.883.69.6
20086.285.58.4
20095.5877.4
20105.288.46.4
2011589.15.9

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200613737539
200717120015
200818727132
200917046474
201018382517
201120634903
Portugal
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20004.681.713.6
20014.582.812.6
20024.384.910.9
20033.985.111
20043.885.111.1
20053.885.111.1
20063.985.610.5
20073.985.310.7
20084.185.210.7
20094.285.410.4
20104.285.110.8
20114.384.810.8

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200622026797
200724324372
200825180382
200924104119
201025732352
201127578334
Romania
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
200016.371.512.2
200115.172.512.4
200211.975.812.3
200311.575.712.8
200411.476.212.4
20059.975.514.6
20069.676.414
20078.677.514
20087.677.215.2
20096.58013.6
20105.981.312.9
20115.581.712.8

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20064900134
20076908599
20088031267
20097984057
20108848949
20119687456
Slovenia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20002.982.914.3
20012.983.513.6
2002383.913.2
2003383.513.5
20042.784.912.4
20052.785.611.6
20062.785.911.4
20072.68611.4
20082.786.410.9
20092.686.710.7
20102.586.810.8
20112.386.810.9

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20061327333
20071504446
20081648977
20091423391
20101382341
20111358792
Slovakia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.764.427.8
20017.564.727.8
20027.266.826
20036.368.824.8
2004667.826.2
20055.969.424.8
20065.970.723.3
200767222
20086.473.320.3
20096.677.316.1
20106.777.815.5
2011777.315.7

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20062124447
20072232411
20082596334
20091948361
20101881844
20111808187
Finland
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.183.411.5
20014.883.811.3
20024.884.111.1
20034.784.410.9
20044.784.810.6
20054.884.910.3
20064.884.910.3
2007584.910
20085.484.510.1
20095.184.910
20105.284.99.9
2011585.19.8

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200613443365
200714464575
200814850682
200913828812
201014220636
201116374398
Sweden
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.583.88.6
20017.983.88.3
20027.8848.2
20037.784.38
20047.584.77.8
20057.784.67.6
20068.384.17.6
20078.783.97.4
20089.483.37.2
20099.583.47.1
20109.483.47.2
20119.583.37.3

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200625744721
200726967253
200827817350
200925218784
201026646764
201129732247
United Kingdom
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.388.26.5
20015.388.36.3
20025.288.66.2
20035.488.46.2
20045.688.16.2
20055.887.96.3
20066.288.95
20076.588.55
20086.987.95.2
20096.888.25
20107.587.45.1
20117.587.55

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006211228518
2007217288456
2008213888122
2009198531887
2010192884537
2011201535227
Source: Eurostat

Energy and environment

The EU imports more than 50% of its energy needs.

Percentage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources

CountryGDP per capita in PPS
Malta (MT)0.6
Cyprus (CY)3.4
Luxembourg (LU)4.1
Hungary (HU)6.4
Poland (PL)8.2
Belgium (BE)8.8
United Kingdom (UK)8.8
Lithuania (LT)9.0
Netherlands (NL)9.8
Czech Republic (CZ)10.6
Estonia (EE)12.3
Bulgaria (BG)13.9
Greece (EL)14.8
France (FR)16.4
Ireland (IE)17.6
Slovakia (SK)19.3
Germany (DE)20.9
(EU28)21.7
Italy (IT)23.7
Finland (FI)29.4
Slovenia (SI)30.8
Romania (RO)31.1
Spain (ES)31.6
Croatia (HR)34.2
Denmark (DK)35.9
Latvia (LV)44.7
Portugal (PT)45.9
Sweden (SE)59.9
Austria (AT)65.0
Source: Eurostat


Net dependence on energy imports as a percentage of total consumption

CountryCoalPetroleumNatural gas
Austria91.2
Belgium98.6
Bulgaria97.7
Croatia79.9
Cyprus:
Czech Republic95.2
Denmark-47.7
Estonia56.3
Finland97.3
France97.9
Germany94.2
Greece93.8
Hungary82.2
Ireland101.1
Italy91.0
Latvia101.8
Lithuania91.4
Luxembourg99.6
Malta100.3
Netherlands91.3
Poland95.9
Portugal100.6
Romania47.0
Slovakia90.0
Slovenia100.1
Spain99.8
Sweden99.9
United Kingdom27.0
Source: Eurostat

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