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The economy

Operating as a single market with 28 countries, the EU is a major world trading power.


EU economic policy seeks to sustain growth by investing in transport, energy and research – while minimising the impact of further economic development on the environment.

Measuring the EU’s economy

The EU's economy — measured in terms of the goods and services it produces (GDP) — is now bigger than the US's: EU GDP in 2012: €12 945 402 million

Trade

With just 7% of the world’s population, the EU's trade with the rest of the world accounts for around 20% of global exports and imports.

Around two-thirds of EU countries’ total trade is done with other EU countries.

Trade has been hit by the global recession, but the EU remains the world’s largest player accounting for 16.4% of global imports in 2011. The EU is followed by the United States with 15.5% of all imports, and China with 11.9%. The EU was also the biggest exporter, accounting for 15.4% of all exports – compared with 13.4% for China and the 10.5% for the United States.

Employment

Employment has also been hit by the global economic crisis, and the turbulence in the eurozone.

Workforce employed in agriculture

CountryFamily labour forceRegular non family labour forceNon-family labour force working on non-regular basis
Austria91.36%7.75%0.88%
Belgium78.18%16.97%4.84%
Bulgaria90.10%7.59%2.30%
Croatia96.24%2.76%1.00%
Cyprus92.62%5.14%2.24%
Czech Republic31.57%65.94%2.49%
Denmark69.65%28.46%1.89%
Estonia74.5%24.42%1.08%
Finland85.77%10.89%3.34%
France51.58%40.51%7.91%
Germany71.67%21.4%6.93%
Greece93.46%2.06%4.47%
Hungary90.45%7.79%1.76%
Iceland66.33%28.55%5.12%
Ireland92.93%5.97%1.10%
Italy92.16%4.66%3.18%
Latvia90.11%9.61%0.28%
Lithuania91.63%7.57%0.80%
Luxembourg79.88%17.19%2.93%
Malta95.09%4.69%0.22%
Netherlands63.78%27.47%8.74%
Poland97.01%2.26%0.73%
Portugal89.42%6.83%3.75%
Romania97.04%1.45%1.50%
Slovakia49.60%48.35%2.05%
Slovenia96.08%1.52%2.40%
Spain81.49%11.49%7.02%
Sweden82.75%14.99%2.26%
United Kingdom72.82%22.70%4.48%
Source: Eurostat


The data is not available for EU countries that do not appear
in the drop-down menu.

Percentage of people employed in industry (excluding construction) compared to 2010 (2010 = 100)

YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012100.1499.9299.6699.13
201398.7198.3598.0698.00
EU27
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012100.44100.2799.9599.47
201399.1298.8598.7198.74
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012100.49100.32100.0299.54
201399.1998.9298.7998.82
Belgium
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201299.3299.2798.4798.07
201397.1996.5696.0995.62
Bulgaria
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201297.3297.0996.7795.93
201394.7094.6793.9993.77
Czech Republic
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012101.84101.84101.76101.72
2013100.89100.94100.69100.87
Denmark
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201299.4198.7598.2597.62
201397.0796.7896.6996.72
Germany
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012104.44104.84105.12105.16
2013105.32105.38105.52105.70
Estonia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012104.21105.02105.59106.48
2013107.39107.92108.06107.88
Ireland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201297.4295.9094.9297.66
201399.8199.0199.98100.83
Greece
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201288.8587.4086.9982.76
201378.7877.90::
Spain
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201294.4193.1892.7790.85
201389.6788.2787.3187.56
France
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201298.4798.2898.0797.71
201397.3096.7696.4396.16
Croatia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201295.5294.4893.3591.96
201392.0291.6891.3490.66
Italy
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012::::
2013::::
Cyprus
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201293.2391.1889.7487.62
201382.9780.8178.7078.67
Latvia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012109.79111.11112.50113.23
2013114.05114.31114.73114.48
Lithuania
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012102.85102.99102.90102.99
2013105.82106.24105.80105.48
Luxembourg
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201298.0397.8697.1996.48
201396.1195.7395.4795.98
Hungary
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012101.26101.53101.19101.08
2013101.48101.98102.44102.68
Malta
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201299.3599.0499.0898.58
201398.0997.9197.7297.43
Netherlands
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201298.5498.2897.8997.61
201397.4096.9596.6796.41
Austria
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012103.60103.85104.00103.88
2013103.94104.15103.80103.82
Poland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012101.52101.29101.07100.77
2013100.35100.20100.43100.70
Portugal
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201296.7995.8795.0794.24
201393.5393.0492.8192.91
Romania
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012102.51103.39103.82104.37
2013104.47104.13103.90104.04
Slovenia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201297.7297.3896.7297.27
201394.4294.1994.2294.37
Slovakia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012104.37104.09103.62102.09
2013102.31102.26102.48102.98
Finland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201298.9298.9097.5597.42
201398.1798.1395.1095.18
Sweden
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012101.20100.71100.31100.09
201399.6398.5197.5997.71
United Kingdom
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2012100.88100.6999.4598.52
201398.4898.6099.6499.99

The data is not available for EU countries that do not appear
in the drop-down menu.

Source: Eurostat


The data is not available for EU countries that do not appear
in the drop-down menu.

Employment in services compared to 2010 (2010 = 100)

EU28
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.60101.64101.57101.45
2012101.56101.68NaNNaN
Bulgaria
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201197.0796.6995.6494.61
201295.1596.33NaNNaN
Belgium
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011NaNNaNNaNNaN
2012NaNNaNNaNNaN
Czech Republic
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.21101.75101.49101.23
2012101.05100.84NaNNaN
Denmark
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.50101.62101.51101.71
2012102.01102.28NaNNaN
Germany
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011104.98105.10105.42105.91
2012106.46106.67NaNNaN
Estonia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011107.55108.80109.21110.15
2012112.41112.40NaNNaN
Ireland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011103.79100.12102.72102.35
2012101.81101.10NaNNaN
Greece
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201183.2485.5782.3779.19
201277.74NaNNaNNaN
Spain
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201197.2195.9795.1694.65
201294.3494.02NaNNaN
France
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.70101.51101.28100.92
2012100.86100.49NaNNaN
Italy
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011NaNNaNNaNNaN
2012NaNNaNNaNNaN
Cyprus
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011100.52100.4699.6498.54
201297.5596.06NaNNaN
Latvia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011113.43114.62118.81120.02
2012121.20120.99NaNNaN
Lithuania
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011105.81106.46107.29108.22
2012110.05110.53NaNNaN
Luxembourg
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011105.69105.97106.12107.06
2012107.27108.00NaNNaN
Hungary
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201198.0897.1498.1997.82
201297.4298.38NaNNaN
Malta
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201197.7398.8099.8299.93
2012100.23100.19NaNNaN
Netherlands
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.48101.39101.06100.72
2012100.15NaNNaNNaN
Austria
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011104.44104.26104.04103.74
2012NaNNaNNaNNaN
Poland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011104.77104.76105.08105.20
2012105.29105.56NaNNaN
Portugal
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201193.6492.1790.9589.75
201288.3188.02NaNNaN
Romania
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011102.53104.82106.22108.67
2012108.59109.05NaNNaN
Slovenia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.1398.1397.5098.19
201295.6895.59NaNNaN
Slovakia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011102.44104.47105.38105.59
2012105.56105.95NaNNaN
Finland
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011101.68103.07102.97102.58
2012101.44101.17NaNNaN
Sweden
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011107.07107.79107.15108.70
2012109.53109.36NaNNaN
United Kingdom
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
2011103.34103.77104.00103.80
2012104.85105.82NaNNaN
Croatia
YearQ1Q2Q3Q4
201199.3999.6299.7499.10
201299.2799.08NaNNaN

The data is not available for EU countries that do not appear
in the drop-down menu.

Source: Eurostat


Unemployment rate

CountryWomenMen
Austria4.8% 4.6%
Belgium7.9% 9.1%
Bulgaria11.1% 12.6%
Croatia15.8% 16.7%
Cyprus15.1% 15.5%
Czech Republic7.7% 5.3%
Denmark6.7% 6.3%
Estonia7.2% 8.5%
Finland8.2% 9.3%
France9.6% 10.5%
Germany4.7% 5.5%
Greece30.7% 24.6%
Hungary8.1% 7.8%
Ireland10.0% 13.5%
Italy13.8% 11.7%
Latvia10.2% 12.8%
Lithuania9.9% 12.0%
Luxembourg6.6% 6.1%
Malta5.4% 5.9%
Netherlands6.6% 7.0%
Poland10.1% 9.2%
Portugal14.3% 14.4%
Romania6.5% 7.9%
Slovakia14.0% 13.8%
Slovenia11.5% 9.2%
Spain26.0% 24.3%
Sweden7.5% 8.0%
United Kingdom6.3% 6.6%
Source: Eurostat

Research

Research and development (R&D) lies at the heart of the EU’s strategy to make its economy more competitive. The aim is to invest more to bring its R&D spending in line with that of the United States and Japan.

No data available for some countries and/or sectors

Total spending on R&D as a percentage of GDP

CountryBusiness enterprise sectorGovernment sectorHigher education sectorPrivate non-profit sector
Austria1.950.150.730.01
Belgium1.520.180.520.02
Bulgaria0.390.190.050.01
Croatia0.340.210.20
Cyprus0.060.080.260.06
Czech Republic1.010.350.520.01
Denmark1.960.070.950.01
Estonia1.250.20.70.02
Finland2.440.320.770.02
France1.480.310.470.03
Germany2.020.430.53:
Greece0.240.170.280.01
Hungary0.850.190.24:
Ireland1.20.080.45:
Italy0.690.170.360.04
Latvia0.150.180.33:
Lithuania0.240.180.48:
Luxembourg10.280.180
Malta0.50.030.30
Netherlands1.220.230.7:
Poland0.330.250.310
Portugal0.70.10.580.12
Romania0.190.20.10
Slovakia0.340.20.280
Slovenia2.160.340.290
Spain0.690.250.360
Sweden2.310.160.920.01
United Kingdom1.090.140.460.03

No data available for some countries and/or sectors

Source: Eurostat

Transport

The EU aims is to promote efficient, safe, secure and environmentally friendly transport networks.

The proportion of journeys made by car has increased slightly since 2008 – compared with other forms of road transport (such as coaches and buses). The EU continues to support investment in and restructuring of rail transport.

In spite of the current economic crisis, global air transport looks set to expand by around 5% a year until 2030. As traffic increases, so do concerns about safety. EU aviation policy aims to make European air space the safest in the world.

Passenger transport by road, rail and air


Passenger transport by road, rail and air

Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.282.99.9
20017.183.29.8
20026.883.69.6
20036.783.99.5
20046.883.89.4
20056.983.79.5
2006783.79.2
20077.183.69.3
20087.283.79.1
2009784.38.7
20107.184.28.7
20117.183.79.1
20127.483.39.2

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006:
2007:
2008:
2009:
2010:
2011:
2012:
EU28
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.282.99.9
20017.183.29.8
20026.883.79.5
20036.783.99.5
20046.883.99.4
20056.983.79.4
20067.183.79.2
20077.183.69.3
20087.283.79.1
2009784.38.7
20107.184.28.7
20117.183.79.1
20127.483.39.2

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006:
2007792700448
2008798330585
2009751060420
2010776851750
2011821265790
2012826463402
Belgium
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20006.183.410.5
20016.28310.7
20026.382.311.4
20036.381.212.5
20046.880.512.7
20056.380.713
20066.680.213.2
20076.779.913.4
20087.280.312.5
20097.280.312.5
20107.480.312.2
20117.480.312.3
20127.180.412.4

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200619154636
200720805314
200821981645
200921314463
201022690502
201125098923
201225913625
Bulgaria
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.860.831.4
20016.661.532
20025.461.233.4
20035.566.528.1
20045.169.825
20054.870.924.3
20064.772.622.7
20074.473.821.8
2008475.120.8
20093.779.516.8
20103.68016.4
20113.580.615.9
2012380.116.9

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006:
20076071210
20086417873
20095838685
20106168346
20116651562
20126819024
Czech Republic
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20008.373.118.6
20018.371.819.9
20027.573.818.7
20037.375.517.2
20047.576.616
20057.375.517.2
20067.575.217.3
20077.375.717
20087.17616.9
20096.977.116
20107.673.518.9
20117.775.317
20128.474.816.8

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200612171235
200713098141
200813429149
200912367467
201012242386
201112650532
201211742352
Denmark
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20008.779.611.7
20019.179.211.7
20029.279.111.7
20039.379.111.6
20049.379.311.4
20059.479.211.3
20069.679.211.2
20079.579.810.6
20089.779.910.5
20099.679.910.5
20109.979.410.7
20111079.610.3
201210.180.29.7

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200622965651
200724041619
200824629204
200922272961
201024330644
201125804863
201226528356
Germany
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.785.27.1
20017.685.56.9
20027.186.26.7
20037.286.16.8
20047.585.86.7
20057.585.86.7
20067.885.66.6
20077.885.76.5
20088.185.66.3
20097.9866.1
20108866
20118.285.95.9
2012985.45.7

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006154145981
2007163843996
2008166095390
2009158150131
2010166130833
2011175316076
2012178591103
Estonia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20002.769.827.5
20011.970.128
20021.871.726.5
20031.773.624.7
20041.872.925.3
20051.975.722.4
200627819.9
20072.279.418.4
20082.181.416.5
2009283.115
2010283.614.4
2011284.114
20121.883.614.6

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20061533132
20071722505
20081804430
20091341294
20101381062
20111907569
20122202427
Ireland
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20003.280.616.2
20013.380.616.1
20023.58115.6
20033.381.415.3
2004381.915.1
20053.382.114.6
20063.382.314.4
20073.482.314.2
20083.382.314.4
20092.882.115
20102.982.614.5
20112.982.614.6
20122.882.814.4

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200627558133
200729840020
200830018287
200926268887
201023093749
201123362889
201223594089
Greece
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20002.272.825.1
20011.974.323.8
20021.975.123
20031.676.422.1
20041.677.520.9
20051.778.320
20061.679.219.2
20071.679.918.5
20081.380.817.9
20091.281.916.9
20101.181.617.3
20110.881.617.6
20120.781.617.7

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200632762340
200734785958
200834404278
200932882441
201032131780
201133291435
201231575703
Spain
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.48113.5
20015.580.813.7
20025.282.512.3
20035.183.111.8
2004581.713.2
20055.18212.9
20065.282.812
200758114
20085.580.314.3
20095.481.413.3
20105.482.312.3
20115.680.913.5
20125.680.713.7

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006150599286
2007163523010
2008161400952
2009148318298
2010153387014
2011165153230
2012159771261
France
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20008.686.15.3
20018.586.64.9
20028.786.45
20038.486.65
20048.786.25.1
20059.185.85.2
20069.485.35.3
20079.684.95.5
20089.385.65.2
20099.485.45.2
20109.385.55.3
20119.385.35.4
20129.585.15.4

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006113182776
2007120034361
2008122723531
2009117561564
2010122887263
2011131425313
2012135005802
Croatia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.181.413.6
20014.881.713.5
20024.582.213.3
20034.282.213.6
20044.283.812.1
20054.383.811.9
20064.483.711.8
2007582.912.1
20085.482.212.5
20095.683.610.7
20105.683.710.7
20114.984.610.5
20123.585.810.7

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006:
2007:
20084504278
20094334987
20104677030
20114989047
20125422530
Italy
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.883.310.9
20015.883.211
20025.683.311.1
20035.583.411.1
20045.583.411.1
2005681.812.2
20066.181.512.4
2007681.612.4
2008681.712.4
20095.582.811.7
20105.682.412.1
20115.78113.3
20126.178.915

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200695914356
2007106294205
2008105216903
2009101823760
2010109064953
2011116226667
2012116029388
Cyprus
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
2000:77.722.3
2001:77.522.5
2002:77.422.6
2003:76.423.6
2004:78.821.2
2005:79.220.8
2006:79.620.4
2007:80.319.7
2008:81.218.8
2009:82.417.6
2010:81.918.1
2011:81.718.3
2012:81.318.7

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20066713880
20077004127
20087218073
20096729554
20106947632
20117190265
20127328248
Latvia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20004.876.918.4
20014.879.915.3
20024.876.618.6
20034.875.719.4
20045.273.821.1
20055.473.521.1
20065.476.618
20074.979.415.7
20085.278.716.1
20094.780.215.1
20104.778.217.1
20114.976.218.9
20124.876.918.3

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20062488065
20073155771
20083687329
20094062704
20104655898
20115098360
20124754530
Lithuania
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20003.282.214.6
20012.882.614.6
20022.58215.4
20031.98513.1
20041.586.611.9
20051.189.49.5
20061918
20070.990.78.4
2008190.98.2
20090.9927.1
20100.791.77.6
20110.890.88.3
20120.8918.2

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20061799195
20072195959
20082552074
20091867191
20102282834
20112691991
20123166628
Luxembourg
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.185.59.5
20015.185.29.7
20023.985.710.5
20033.785.710.6
20043.685.610.8
20053.685.510.9
20063.985.310.8
20074.184.911.1
20084.384.211.4
20094.384.311.4
20104.583.512.1
20114.483.112.5
20124.68312.4

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20061597404
20071634465
20081713003
20091535261
20101613600
20111836761
20121893988
Hungary
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20001361.925.1
200113.461.724.9
200213.961.125
200313.462.124.5
200413.463.223.4
200512.664.223.2
200611.965.622.5
20071167.621.5
200810.467.522.1
200910.269.220.7
20109.968.621.4
201110.268.321.5
201210.167.722.2

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20068245920
20078580261
20088429082
20098081067
20108174510
20118884837
20128429843
Malta
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
2000:79.620.4
2001:79.320.7
2002:79.420.6
2003:79.520.5
2004:79.620.4
2005:80.319.7
2006:80.419.6
2007:80.619.4
2008:80.819.2
2009:81.918.1
2010:81.518.5
2011:82.417.6
2012:82.517.5

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20062699870
20072971368
20083109899
20092918676
20103293548
20113506723
20123650345
Netherlands
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20009.4864.6
20019.4864.6
20029.386.44.3
20038.787.43.9
20048.487.73.9
20058.987.33.8
20069.487.23.5
20079.687.13.4
20089.287.33.5
20098.887.73.5
20109.187.23.7
20118.788.13.3
20128.888.23

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200648582547
200750500592
200850418517
200946479064
201048616387
201153895216
201255680131
Austria
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20009.879.211
20019.779.410.9
20029.779.410.9
20039.579.510.9
20049.579.611
20059.879.710.5
20061079.610.4
200710.179.210.8
200811.178.610.2
200911.179.39.6
20101178.710.3
20111178.910.1
201211.578.510

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200620824533
200722926104
200823899584
200921817267
201023532455
201125137612
201225965977
Poland
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
200011.772.815.4
200110.674.714.7
20029.57713.5
20038.877.613.5
2004878.913.1
20057.380.712
20066.982.510.6
20076.883.69.6
20086.285.58.4
20095.5877.4
20105.288.46.4
20114.884.410.8
20124.884.610.7

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200613737539
200717120015
200818727132
200917046474
201018382517
201120634903
201221791428
Portugal
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20004.681.713.6
20014.582.812.6
20024.384.910.9
20033.985.111
20043.885.111.1
2005489.36.7
2006489.66.3
20074.189.46.5
20084.389.26.4
20094.489.46.2
20104.489.16.5
20114.588.96.5
20124.189.36.6

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200622026797
200724324372
200825180382
200924104119
201025732352
201127578334
201228186254
Romania
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
200016.371.512.2
200115.172.512.4
200211.975.812.3
200311.575.712.8
200411.476.212.4
20059.975.514.6
20069.676.414
20078.677.514
20087.677.215.2
20096.58013.6
20105.981.312.9
20115.581.712.8
20124.982.212.9

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20064900134
20076908599
20088031267
20097984057
20108848949
20119687456
20129674226
Slovenia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20002.982.914.3
20012.983.513.6
2002383.913.2
2003383.513.5
20042.784.912.4
20052.785.611.6
20062.785.611.7
20072.68611.4
20082.786.410.9
20092.686.710.7
20102.586.810.8
20112.386.611
20122.386.711.1

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20061327333
20071504446
20081648977
20091423391
20101382341
20111358792
20121167877
Slovakia
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.764.427.8
20017.564.727.8
20027.266.826
20036.368.824.8
2004667.826.2
20055.969.424.8
20065.970.723.3
200767222
20086.473.320.3
20096.677.316.1
20106.777.815.5
2011777.415.6
20127.177.815.1

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
20062124447
20072232411
20082596334
20091948361
20101881844
20111808187
20121563197
Finland
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.183.411.5
20014.883.811.3
20024.884.111.1
20034.784.410.9
20044.784.810.6
20054.884.910.3
20064.884.910.3
2007584.910
20085.484.510.1
20095.184.910
20105.284.99.9
2011585.19.8
20125.384.99.8

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200613443365
200714464575
200814850682
200913828812
201014220636
201116374398
201216458815
Sweden
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20007.583.88.6
20017.983.88.3
20027.8848.2
20037.784.38
20047.584.77.8
20057.784.67.6
20068.384.17.6
20078.783.97.4
20089.483.37.2
20099.583.47.1
20109.483.47.2
20118.884.46.8
20129.184.36.7

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
200625744721
200726967253
200827817350
200925218784
201026646764
201129732247
201230350845
United Kingdom
Road and rail passengers (% in total inland passenger-km)
YearTrainCarBus, coaches
20005.3886.7
20015.388.16.6
20025.288.46.4
20035.488.26.4
20045.788.75.6
20055.988.35.8
20066.288.35.5
20076.687.95.5
20086.987.25.8
20096.987.16
20107.586.46.2
20117.986.25.9
20128.2865.8

Air transport of passengers
YearAir
2006211228518
2007217288456
2008213888122
2009198531887
2010192884537
2011201535227
2012203066646
Source: Eurostat

Energy and environment

The EU imports more than 50% of its energy needs.

Percentage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources

CountryGDP per capita in PPS
Malta (MT)1.1
Luxembourg (LU)4.6
Cyprus (CY)4.9
Hungary (HU)6.1
Netherlands (NL)10.5
Poland (PL)10.7
United Kingdom (UK)10.8
Lithuania (LT)10.9
Belgium (BE)11.1
Czech Republic (CZ)11.6
Estonia (EE)15.8
Greece (EL)16.5
France (FR)16.6
Bulgaria (BG)17.0
Ireland (IE)19.6
Slovakia (SK)20.1
(EU28)23.5
Germany (DE)23.6
Italy (IT)27.6
Finland (FI)29.5
Slovenia (SI)31.4
Spain (ES)33.5
Romania (RO)33.6
Croatia (HR)35.5
Denmark (DK)38.7
Latvia (LV)44.9
Portugal (PT)47.6
Sweden (SE)60.0
Austria (AT)65.5
Source: Eurostat


Net dependence on energy imports as a percentage of total consumption

CountryCoalPetroleumNatural gas
Austria91.5
Belgium99.3
Bulgaria96.9
Croatia:
Cyprus:
Czech Republic95.3
Denmark-34.8
Estonia60.0
Finland92.5
France97.9
Germany96.0
Greece101.3
Hungary80.8
Ireland98.5
Italy90.1
Latvia101.7
Lithuania93.0
Luxembourg100.5
Malta100.8
Netherlands96.7
Poland94.7
Portugal100.9
Romania51.4
Slovakia89.7
Slovenia105.0
Spain96.7
Sweden95.4
United Kingdom36.3
Source: Eurostat

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