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Romania, in southeast Europe, is dominated by the Carpathian mountains in the north and centre of the country while the main feature in the south is the vast Danube valley which becomes a delta as it approaches the Black Sea.
The most important sectors of Romania’s economy in 2012 were industry (32.4 %), wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services (13.4 %) and public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (12.0 %).
Romania’s main export partners are Germany, Italy and France while its main import partners are Germany, Italy and Hungary.
Geographical size: 238 390.7 km2
Population: 20 095 996 (2012)
Population as % of total EU population: 4.0 % (2012)
GDP: € 131.579 billion (2012)
Official EU language(s): Romanian
Political system: semi-presidential republic
EU member country since: 1 January 2007
Seats in the European Parliament: 32
Currency: Romanian Leu RON
Passport-free travel? No, Romania is not a member of the Schengen Area.
Presidency of the Council: Romania will hold the revolving presidency of the Council of the EU for the first time in 2019.
In the Council of the EU, national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Romanian government, depending on the policy area being addressed.
The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. the Commission or Parliament). Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.
During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions.
Dates of Romanian presidencies:
More on the current presidency of the Council of the EU.
The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation".
Romania has 15 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.
Romania has 15 representatives on the Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.
Romania also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Romania's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.
Member countries' financial contributions to the EU budget are shared fairly, according to means. The larger your country's economy, the more it pays – and vice versa. The EU budget doesn't aim to redistribute wealth, but rather to focus on the needs of all Europeans as a whole.
Breakdown of Romania’s finances with the EU in 2012:
More figures on the EU budget, revenue and spending:
The money paid into the EU budget by Romania helps fund programmes and projects in all EU countries - like building roads, subsidising researchers and protecting the environment.
Find out more about how Romania benefits from EU funding.