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EU member countries

The EU was not always as big as it is today. When European countries started to cooperate economically in 1951, only Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands participated.

Over time, more and more countries decided to join. The union reached its current size of 28 member countries with the accession of Croatia on 1 July 2013.

Austria

EU member country since: 1 January 1995

Capital: Vienna

Geographical size: 83 879.0 km²

Population: 8 408 121 (2012)

Currency: Eurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since: 28 April 1995

Read more about Austria

Belgium

EU member state since: 25 March 1957

Capital: Brussels

Geographical size: 30 528.0 km2

Population: 11 094 850 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 14 June 1985

Read more about Belgium

Bulgaria

EU member state since: 1 January 2007

Capital: Sofia

Geographical size: 110 899.7 km²

Population: 7 327 224 (2012)

Currency: Bulgarian lev BGN

Passport-free travel? No, Bulgaria is not a member of the Schengen Area.

Read more about Bulgaria

Croatia

EU member country since: 1 July 2013

Capital: Zagreb

Geographical size: 87 661.0 km2

Population: 4 275 984 (2012)

Currency: Croatian Kuna HRK

Passport-free travel? No, Croatia is not a member of the Schengen Area.

Read more about Croatia

Cyprus

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Nicosia

Geographical size: 9251.0 km²

Population: 862 011 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since 1 January 2008

Passport-free travel? No, Cyprus is not a member a member of the Schengen Area.  

Read more about Cyprus

Czech Republic

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Prague

Geographical size: 78 866.2 km²

Population: 10 505 445 (2012)

Currency: Czech koruna (CZK)

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 1 May 2004

Read more about Czech Republic

Denmark

EU member state since: 1 January 1973

Capital: Copenhagen

Geographical size: 42 915.7 km²

Population: 5 580 516 (2012)

Currency: Danish krone DKK

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 19 December 2001

Read more about Denmark

Estonia

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Tallinn

Geographical size: 45 227.0 km2

Population: 1 325 217 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since 1 January 2011

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 1 May 2004

Read more about Estonia

Finland

EU member country since: 1 January 1995

Capital: Helsinki

Geographical size: 338 434.7 km2

Population: 5 401 267 (2012)

Currency:  Eurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel?: Yes, Schengen Area member since 19 December 1996

Read more about Finland

France

EU member country since: 25 March 1957

Capital: Paris

Geographical size: 632 833.6 km2

Population: 65 287 861 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 14 June 1985

Read more about France

Germany

EU member country since: 25 March 1957

Capital: Berlin

Geographical size: 357 137.2 km2

Population: 80 327 900 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 14 June 1985

Read more about Germany

Greece

EU member country since: 1 January 1981

Capital: Athens

Geographical size: 131 957 km²

Population: 11 123 034 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since 1 January 2001

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 6 November 1992

Read more about Greece

Hungary

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Budapest

Geographical size: 93 023.7 km2

Population: 9 931 925 (2012)

Currency: Hungarian Forint HUF

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 21 December 2007

Read more about Hungary

Ireland

EU member country since: 1 January 1973

Capital: Dublin

Geographical size: 69 797 km2

Population: 4 582 707 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since: 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? No, Ireland is not a member of the Schengen Area.

Read more about Ireland

Italy

EU member country since: 25 March 1957

Capital: Rome

Geographical size: 301 336 km2

Population: 59 394 207 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 27 November 1990

Read more about Italy

Latvia

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Riga

Geographical size: 64 562 km2

Population: 2 044 813 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since 1 January 2014

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 21 December 2007

Read more about Latvia

Lithuania

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Vilnius

Geographical size: 65 300 km2

Population: 3 003 641 (2012)

Currency: litas (Lt)

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 21 December 2007

Read more about Lithuania

Luxembourg

EU member country since: 25 March 1957

Capital: Luxembourg

Geographical size: 2586 km2

Population: 524 853 (2012)

CurrencyEurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 14 June 1985

Read more about Luxembourg

Malta

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Valletta

Geographical size: 316 km2

Population: 417 546 (2012)

Currency: Eurozone member since 1 January 2008

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 1 May 2004

Read more about Malta

The Netherlands

EU member country since: 25 March 1957

Capital: Amsterdam

Geographical size: 41 540.4 km²

Population: 16 730 348 (2012)

Currency: Eurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 14 June 1985

Read more about the Netherlands

Poland

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Warsaw

Geographical size: 312 679 km2

Population: 38 538 447 (2012)  

Currency: Polish Złoty PLN

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 21 December 2007

Read more about Poland

Portugal

EU member country since: 1 January 1986

Capital: Lisbon

Geographical size: 92 211.9 km2

Population: 10 542 398 (2012)

Currency: Eurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 25 June 1991

Read more about Portugal

Romania

EU member country since: 1 January 2007

Capital: Bucharest

Geographical size: 238 390.7 km2

Population: 20 095 996 (2012)

Currency: Romanian Leu RON

Passport-free travel? No, Romania is not a member of the Schengen Area.

Read more about Romania

Slovakia

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Bratislava

Geographical size: 49 036 km2

Population: 5 404 322 (2012)

Currency: Eurozone member since 1 January 2009

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 21 December 2007

Read more about Slovakia

Slovenia

EU member country since: 1 May 2004

Capital: Ljubljana

Geographical size: 20 273 km2

Population: 2 055 496 (2012)

Currency: Eurozone member since 1 January 2007

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 21 December 2007

Read more about Slovenia

Spain

EU member country since: 1 January 1986

Capital: Madrid

Geographical size: 505 990.7 km2

Population: 46 818 219 (2012)  

Currency: Eurozone member since 1 January 1999

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 25 June 1991

Read more about Spain

Sweden

EU member country since: 1 January 1995

Capital: Stockholm

Geographical size: 438 575.8 km2

Population: 9 482 855 (2012)

Currency: Swedish krona SEK

Passport-free travel? Yes, Schengen Area member since 19 December 1996.

Read more about Sweden

United Kingdom

EU member country since: 1 January 1973

Capital: London

Geographical size: 248 527.8 km²

Population: 63 495 303 (2012)

Currency: pound sterling GBP

Passport-free travel? No, the UK is not a member of the Schengen Area.

Read more about the United Kingdom

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